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This holistic view has helped slow the increase in world population.The average family has declined from six children in 1960 to around three today.More research and a public better educated about sexuality and reproduction could engender a global social movement that would make possible a world of intended pregnancies and births.

It is estimated that 215 million women in developing countries are sexually active, but don't want to become pregnant; in other words, they have an unmet need for family planning.Greater-than-average risk to maternal, perinatal, and child survival is associated with pregnancies at very young (34 years) maternal ages, at high parities, and with short interpregnancy intervals, and with pregnancies that would have ended in unsafe abortion.In countries of low and middle income an increase in contraceptive use by 10% reduces fertility by 0.6 births per woman, decreases the proportion of all births to women with four or more children by 5%, reduces births to women aged 35 years or older by 1.5%, and lowers birth intervals of less than 2 years by 3·5%.In addition, contraception helps lengthen the interval of birth spacing, improving perinatal outcomes and child survival.In developing countries, the risk of prematurity and low birth weight doubles when conception occurs within 6 months of a previous birth, and children born within 2 years of an elder sibling are 60% more likely to die in infancy than are those born more than 2 years after their sibling.Increases in contraceptive use account for about 75% of fertility decline in developing countries in the past six decades and have substantially reduced the proportion of pregnancies in women of high parity, which pose a greater-than-average risk to maternal survival In 2008, contraceptive use averted over 250,000 maternal deaths worldwide by reducing unintended pregnancies, which is equivalent to 40% of the 355,000 maternal deaths that occurred that year If all women in developing countries who want to avoid pregnancy use an effective contraceptive method, the number of maternal deaths would fall by a further 30% Because of its effect on births to women of high parity and on the need to resort to unsafe abortion, contraception also reduces the risk of maternal death per pregnancy; each 1% increase in contraceptive use reduces the maternal mortality ratio by 4·8 deaths per 100 000 live births In rich and poor countries the risks of prematurity and low birth weight are substantially raised by short intervals, and in developing countries, risk of death in infancy (ages Members of parliament meeting at the fifth International Parliamentarians Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) - held in Istanbul - agreed the economic crunch is no reason for governments to relax their commitment to women's reproductive rights and health, made 18 years ago.

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